Scripting - Enumerate file extension, count them and indicate total size

If you have necessity to analyze single folder (and relatives subfolders), identifying all files extensions, count files numbers and indicate total size this script will assist you on this requirement

$directory = "D:\foo"

#Get all items

Get-ChildItem -Path $directory -Recurse |

#Get only files

Where-Object { !$_.PSIsContainer } |

#Group by extension

Group-Object Extension |

#Get data

Select-Object @{n="Extension";e={$_.Name -replace '^\.'}}, @{n="Size (MB)";e={[math]::Round((($_.Group | Measure-Object Length -Sum).Sum / 1MB), 2)}}, Count

Hardware - mSATA vs SATA vs M.2 SSD

Here it is a quick article that well explain differences between mSATA vs SATA vs M.2 SSD

Security - MFA override

Here it is mentioned, in italian language a way to override MFA when a proper phishing email is sent to user that will redirect him to a similar website page (a.e. web bank)

End user will insert user and password. Immediately crimes will insert user and password on original website (a.e. bank).

User will receive email with temporary code (true), that will be inserted in duplicated page. Crimes will use this latter code on original webpage having full access on user account (a.e. bank)

So attention to phishing emails must be improved.

Security - Edge VPN built-in feature Microsoft implementation on going and Opera Built in VPN free

Today  I would like to mention that Microsoft is working to release new Edge version with VPN integrated, it should be for free for limited traffic amount, an account creation should be necessary. 

In any case is an interesting information (to improve security) and encrypt traffic, for providers too, and to hide you public IP address

Another browser that already have, built in VPN feature, for free, is Opera, have a look to below link:

Server - SMB Protocols some useful information

Consider that on each Win O.S. there are two services (one is necessary to connect to remote shares, other one is necessary to publish shares):
  1. Client (LanmanWorkstation)
  2. Server side (LanmanServer

Here they are some useful commands:

Get-Service Lanman*
Get-Service LanmanServer -DependentServices

To log any if SMB 1.0 protocol is enabled on file server you must use below powershell command 

Set-SmbServerConfiguration -AuditSmb1Access $True -Force

On eventviewer logs are here located:

Applications and Services Logs > Microsoft > Windows > SMBServer > Audit

EventID 3000 

to view events using powershell you must use:

Get-WinEvent -LogName Microsoft-Windows-SMBServer/Audit | Out-GridView

to view if SMB 1.0 is enabled 

Get-SmbServerConfiguration | select EnableSMB1Protocol

If you want to see which SMB versions are using your clients

Get-SmbSession | select ClientComputerName, ClientUserName, NumOpens, Dialect

Dialect is correct column indicating SMB version

There are possibilities to encrypt End-to-End encryption, for single share:

Set-SmbShare -Name Projects$ -EncryptData $True -Force

and for entirely file server

Set-SmbServerConfiguration –EncryptData $True -Force

Meanwhile Microsoft is going to not support, SMB 1 on Windows 11 due to well known security problems. (driver and DLL would not be included)

[original article]

IIS - How to enable IIS errors logging

On IIS errors troubleshooting is easier if errors reasons are verbosely indicated in their logs.

This article quickly explain on how to proceed in verbose errors logging procedure

Windows 11 - System Requirements

 Microsoft releases below link where system requirements are verbosely indicated:

Email - Antispam websites #how to verify your email/smtp server or domain is blacklisted

If you have necessity to check if your email/SMTP Server, or domain, is blocked by some antispam here they are some websites that might be useful for this check purposes.

Website Blacklist Checker


Blacklist Check


Email Health




IP Blacklist & Email Blacklist Check


Antiabuse project 

[update 2022.05.09]

You can send, your email, to a specific address to understand it it has some spam related problems

[update 2022.05.26]

[update 2022.05.27]

If you need to verify DNS propagation here it is an useful website:

University - 24/04/2002 -24/04/2022 #personal special anniversary date

I have always found several difficulties publishing, on internet, or on social media, personal information and photos (if not in pediatric quantities).

But, today an exception is necessary, in fact, exactly 20 years ago, I got IT Engineer bachelor degree (five-year).

I finished high school having several difficulties and, the admission judgment ( exam state), was deserved (in negative sense). Among other things, my inclusion (Work world ) was strongly suggested.

I was really problematic (during high school time period)

I finished high school, using tooth and nails, due to fact I had presentiment that University was my way/destiny (the doubt was which one)

The computer science professor was decisive in choosing the university who, in addition to being a father's friend, welcomed us, into his office, telling us about engineer and his University experience.

After this meeting my, university roadmap, was clear in front of me.

Many thanks to IT professor, my parents who supported me financially (and in particular my father who, even he did not speak so much, always trusted in me), several sacrifices that I made (even more necessary, more than other students, due to the fact that I had studied almost nothing on high school) and, why not, a bit of luck (which, in life, it is always useful).

Due to reasons, indicated at the beginning, I do not publish degree day photos but, I like to mention, what "the great" Mathematical Analysis's professor Massimo Furi usually said:

"... There are no differences between a freshman who enters the university and an engineer, the freshman does not know anything for obvious reasons. Those who have just graduated no longer remember anything about what they have studied. But graduated persons has changed their mind/"formas mentis" ... "

and, I feel to add: graduated guys has, surely, two more gears (like mental plasticity)

I end up saying "IT Engineer Bachelor Degree was one, of the 'Missions impossible', that I successfully achieved"

.... latter things, here it is, friends of mine endorsement with whom we studied various exams... He mentioned, some aspects, that rarely are noticed by almost persons.


Trovo, da sempre, grande difficolta' nel pubblicare su internet, o sui social, informazioni e foto personali (se non in quantita' pediatrica).

In questa giornata e' doveroso fare una, piccola, eccezione.

Oggi, vent'anni fa esatti, mi laureavo:

Terminai le superiori con grossa difficolta', ed il giudizio di ammissione all'esame di stato (APPENDICE --> GIUDIZIO AMMISSIONE ESAME SUPERIORI), era meritato (in senso negativo). Tra l'altro si caldeggiava il mio inserimento nel mondo del lavoro (APPENDICE --> ESITO ESAMI SUPERIORI)

Ero, effettivamente, molto problematico (durante il periodo delle superiori)

Terminai le superiori, con le unghie e con i denti, perche' dentro me avevo il presentimento che la mia strada era di fare l'universita' (il dubbio era su quale)

Fu determinante, nella scelta dell'ateneo, l'allora professore d'informatica che, oltre ad essere amico di mio padre, ci accolse, nel suo ufficio per raccontarci di Ingegneria e della sua esperienza (essendo lui Ingegnere).

Dopo questo incontro ne rimasi folgorato ed ero oramai certo di quello che avrei voluto fare da grande.

Devo ringraziare tantissimo il professore di Informatica, i miei genitori che mi hanno sostenuto economicamente (ed in particolare mio padre che, anche se era di poche parole, ha sempre creduto in me), i tantissimi sacrifici da me fatti (ancor piu' necessari, piu' di altri studenti, per il fatto che avevo, alle superiori, studiato quasi niente) e, perche' no, un pizzico di fortuna (che nella vita serve sempre).

Non metto foto della laurea per i motivi indicati all'inizio ma indico quello che disse il "grande" professore di Analisi Matematica I e II Massimo Furi:

"...Non vi e' differenza tra una matricola che entra all'universita' e un ingegnere, la matricola non sa nulla per ovvi motivi. Chi si e' appena laureato non ricorda piu' niente di quello che ha studiato. Ma la persona laureata ha cambiato "formas mentis" ..."

ed aggiungo, ha due marce in piu' (come plasticita' mentale)

Finisco dicendo "IT Engineer Bachelor Degree was one, of the 'Missions impossibles', that I successfully achieved"

....dimenticavo, aggiungo l'endorsement di un mio amico con il quale abbiamo fatto vari esami insieme e, se non ricordo male, ci siamo laureati a pochi mesi di distanza... Ha centrato aspetti che ai piu' sfuggono, o sono sfuggiti, sul mio conto...




Server - Microsoft DTC & Firewall rules

Here it is official Microsoft article that explain on how correctly configure Distributed Transaction Coordinator (DTC) working properly through firewall (and relatives ports to be opened):,of%2015%20to%2020%20ports

Network - Wireshark Tutorials

Here they are HowToForge tutorials related to Wireshark.

I am taking note on blog and share it in case for someone might be useful.

Overview of the Wireshark User Interface (GUI)

How to use Wireshark for capturing and analyzing network packets

Wireshark Remote Capturing

Tips - How to fix “The sign-in method you’re trying to use isn’t allowed”

If you have necessity to logon to Domain Controller without having Domain Admins permissions you should  change Default Domain Policy checking if you users belongs to "Deny log on locally" section 

Computer Configuration > Policies > Windows Settings > Security Settings > Local Policies > User Rights Assignments

Here it is original article


If you need to plan one shot (fixed time and date) reboot you could use this command.

It will create a scheduled task, that can be executed with or without any one logged on.

(no password saving is required)

Obviously any other customization is easily to be rearranged.

schtasks /create /sc once /tn taskname /tr "shutdown -r -f” /st hh:mm /sd dd/mm/yyyy /NP


/NP   No password is stored.  The task runs non-interactively

            as the given user.  Only local resources are available.      

 /SC   schedule    Specifies the schedule frequency.

                                    Valid schedule types: MINUTE, HOURLY, DAILY, WEEKLY,

                                    MONTHLY, ONCE, ONSTART, ONLOGON, ONIDLE,                                     ONEVENT.                                                          


/SD   startdate    Specifies the first date on which the task runs. The

                                   format is dd/mm/yyyy. Defaults to the current

                                    date. This is not applicable for schedule types: ONCE,

                                    ONSTART, ONLOGON, ONIDLE, ONEVENT.                           


/ST   starttime     Specifies the start time to run the task. The time

                                    format is HH:mm (24 hour time) for example, 14:30 for

                                    2:30 PM. Defaults to current time if /ST is not

                                    specified.  This option is required with /SC ONCE.


/TN   taskname    Specifies the string in the form of path\name

                                    which uniquely identifies this scheduled task.


/TR   taskrun      Specifies the path and file name of the program to be

                                    run at the scheduled time.

                                    Example: C:\windows\system32\calc.exe            


If you must check server uptime (or any other information) systeminfo is an interesting command line tool (Windows builtin)

SystemInfo /s SERVERNAME| find "Boot Time:"

With previous command you could obtain remote server uptime information

Indeed concatenating previous commands, using &&, it will aggregate several server info "one shot"

SystemInfo /s SERVERNAME1 | find "Boot Time:" && SystemInfo /s SERVERNAME2| find "Boot Time:"

Consider that you might launch command line, locally, with AD account with enough permissions on remote servers.

[related article]

Scripting - How to refresh remote client ip

Antivirus - Failed to install sme64: general error #Sophos Central

During these days we faced several devices with below error (on Sophos Central console)

Failed to install sme64: general error

Due to this error no updates was no longer received on endpoints.

This is Sophos article that fixed problem (certificate error)

Server - Event ID 4105: The Terminal Services license server cannot update the license attributes for user in Active Directory Domain #HOW TO FIX

During these days we faced problems on license server (that was dealing 2008 R2 CAL)

Error was this one:

Event ID 4105: The Terminal Services license server cannot update the license attributes for user <UserName> in Active Directory Domain <DomainName>

Log Name: System

Source: Microsoft-Windows-TerminalServices-Licensing

Event ID : 4105

Level: Warning

User: N/A

Computer: <computer name>


The Terminal Services license server cannot update the license attributes for user <user name> in the Active Directory Domain <domain name>. Ensure that the computer account for the license server is a member of Terminal Server License Servers group in Active Directory domain <domain name>.

If the license server is installed on a domain controller, the Network Service account also needs to be a member of the Terminal Server License Servers group.

If the license server is installed on a domain controller, after you have added the appropriate accounts to the Terminal Server License Servers group, you must restart the Terminal Services Licensing service to track or report the usage of TS Per User CALs.

Win32 error code: 0x80070005

Solution was to add these AD group "Terminal Server License Server" to users that was dealing with problem (and changing permissions as below screenshot)

Security - How to find domains that contain specific keyword

You might have necessity to check if you domain/company name, or any other term, is available on internet.

Basically to intercept any phishing, website cloning with similar FQDN

There is a specific website that easily help you on these searches.

You can use:

  1. ^keyword to search all domains that starts with keyword term
  2. keyword$ to search all domains that ends with keyword term

Citrix - Office 365 Randomly Asks Users to Reactivate

It might happen that, on Citrix Environment, users may be prompted, randomly, about Office 365, license reactivating necessity.

This Citrix Article well explain on how to fix this behavior, key point is adding some folders that must be synchronized on yours profile server. (when user login/loggoff)

Scripting - File Server migration using robocopy command

In the past we managed 2008 to 2016 migration and so I am taking note about robocopy syntax that it was useful during this project. (focused on file servers migration)

Approach was replicating root folder on new server, enabling share (on new server), stopping old share folder and finally launching this command (from old file  server) for final folder synchronization.

robocopy local_drive:\localfoldername \\remote_server\remote_share_name /E /COPYALL /SEC /MIR /ZB /W:1 /R:1 /LOG:C:\locallogfolder\SYNC_OLDSERVER_VS_NEWSERVER_DATE_TIME.LOG /TEE 

/SEC it replicate security permissions

/Tee it enable video logging real time display

/SECFIX it fix security permissions

Meanwhile I am adding  old blog articles links:

Backup - Robocopy and real time monitoring of any file changes

Scritping - Using robocopy to replicate files to remote location on scheduled tasks and sending final log and status email

Backup – Lista dei comandi di Robocopy

Tips - How to migrate file server share and permissions

Scripting - Inviare una mail da riga di comando in windows

Veeam - How to restore all your infrastructure having only Veeam Backups

I am taking note about an interesting article that simple explain on how proceeding to restore your all infrastructure having only Veeam Backups available.

Tips - Windows 10 /Outlook Emoticons shortcuts

 There is an easy and quick way to insert Emoticons using Windows 10/Outlook.

You simply need to press

 Windows button in conjunction with . (DOT/period button) 

Script - How to enumerate/export, to .CSV, shared Folder/Subfolders Security permissions

It is important to verify shared folder permissions to find any misconfiguration.

I found an interesting script that easily enumerates all shared folders and it creates a .csv file (for reporting purposes).

Here it is relative script and link:

This powershell script enumerates all folder and subfolders permissions of a folder and exporting it to ,csv file.

An alternative article (that I did no test)

Freeware - Blue Screen View tool #Nirsoft

Blue screen view è un’utile strumento che permette di consultare i report generati dagli errori delle BSOD (Sleep of Death), cioè le famose schermate blu di blocco tipiche dei computer Windows che compaiono quando il sistema operativo va in crash per qualche motivo. 
Con l’ausilio di questo programma sarà possibile capire la natura del problema e successivamente di porvi rimedio se possibile. 

BlueScreenView Nirsoft 

 Blue screen view is an useful tool that allows you to browse reports, generated by BSOD, that is O.S. windows typical screen appearing when computer crashes. 
This tool will give you an aid determining root problem cause (and fix it) 

BlueScreenView Nirsoft 

Security - RemotePotato0 0-Day vulnerability

There is 0-day a vulnerability that affect all Windows versions permitting to gain Domain Admin permissions.

This attack use NTLM (old authentication protocol that was substituted by Kerberos), Microsoft suggest to disable NTLM (or configure servers to block NTLM relay). For the moment no patches are available (and it is not clear if Microsoft will never release it)

Meanwhile you can create 0patch account and install their patches.

Consider that O.S./SW no longer supported could benefits 0Patch platform patches/fixes

[original article]

Tutorial - How to download and convert Youtube Video with VLC

If we are interested to download and convert a Youtube Video we can follow the above screenshot.

It's very fast and easy.

The original article, instead, it's at the following link:




 Later the relative download will happen while you view the video going on the screen.

Website - Radio Frequence website and SATSAGEN Windows application that allows you to use an SDR device as a Spectrum Analyzer.

 Today I would like to share this website mainly for radio-amateur

On website you can find SATSAGEN software mention. Consider that it is a Windows application that allows you to use an SDR device as a Spectrum Analyzer. 

SATSAGEN is provided free of charge to the HAM Radio community, with the hope that SATSAGEN can be appreciated as a useful tool for our radio experimentation.

This is a latter post about SATSAGEN version

Here it is software overview


Download SATSAGEN from this link:

There is a latter interesting video that give you a software overview

Exchange - Recover Offline/dismounted/corrupted EDB files #HOW TO #Stellar Repair For Exchange

During previous years I worked hard on Exchange environment too.

Today I would like to mention Stellar Repair For Exchange 

(Trial version here available

Here they are products features highlights that I would like to share on this blog article:

  1. It supports Exchange Server 2019/2016/2013/2010/2007/2003/2000, and 5.5.
  2. Exports complete EDB file directly to live Exchange and Office 365.
  3. Recover Offline/dismounted/corrupted EDB files.

  4. Exchange Database Recovery

  5. This tool is is the combination of five Exchange tools - Exchange Recovery, Mailbox Extractor, OST to PST Converter, Exchange Backup Extractor, and Password Recovery.
    The 5-in-one Toolkit mounts and repairs the Exchange database and enables you to export mailboxes to PST, live Exchange, and Office 365.

  6. Selective Mailbox Recovery
    • The Exchange database recovery software provides an enhanced preview of mailboxes and its items. The selective mailbox recovery feature allows users to repair the desired mailboxes or items and save them in multiple formats. The users can select or unselect individual or multiple mailboxes and mail items as per their recovery needs.

  7. Support Archive Mailboxes Recovery
    • The Exchange recovery tool also supports archive mailbox recovery. The software can repair corrupt or damaged archive mailboxes and save them to PST, MSG, EML, RTF, HTML, or PDF format. You can also export the archive mailboxes to Office 365 or live Exchange server directly.

  8. Enhanced Mailbox Preview for Precise Recovery
  9. Exports Recovered Contacts to CSV

  10. Exports Recovered Files to Office 365

  11. Saves Recovered Exchange Mailboxes in Various Formats

  12. Deleted Exchange Mailbox Recovery

If you want to have a quick product tour you can review below video:

How to Repair and Restore Exchange Database - Stellar Repair for Exchange || Alternative to ESEUTIL


Scripting - Get-ADComputer - How to retrieve computer last logon date

There is an easy and quick way to get .TXT file with all AD computer names and relativse last logon dates.

  1. You must execute Powershell module with Administrative rights.
  2. Import-Module activedirectory
  3. Get-Help Get-ADComputer
  4. Get-ADComputer -Filter * -Properties *  | Sort LastLogonDate | FT Name, LastLogonDate -Autosize | Out-File C:\Temp\ComputerLastLogonDate.txt

Alternative approach could be:
  1. $DaysInactive = 90
  2. $time = (Get-Date).Adddays(-($DaysInactive))
  3. Get-ADComputer -Filter {LastLogonTimeStamp -lt $time} -ResultPageSize 2000 -resultSetSize $null -Properties Name, OperatingSystem, SamAccountName, DistinguishedName
  4. Get-ADComputer -Filter {LastLogonTimeStamp -lt $time} -ResultPageSize 2000 -resultSetSize $null -Properties Name, OperatingSystem, SamAccountName, DistinguishedName | Export-CSV “C:\Temp\StaleComps.CSV” –NoTypeInformation
[original articles]

Windows 10 - Quick assist a free Teamviewer alternative

There is an interesting built in feature inside Windows 10 that permit to receive and give remote assistance (inside and externally your organization).

This feature is named "Quick Assist" and is easily usable finding it in yours Windows 10 device (secondly you need to authenticate using your Microsoft account):

Relative usage is well explained in below articles:

In present article I would like to share how to give remote assistance and execute applications, on remote client, that needs administrative rights.

Key point is necessity to create a proper GPO (or change client gpedit.msc settings) as below.

What I suggest is to make some changes in your GPO on how the UAC presents itself but does not turn it off.

Computer Configuration/Windows Settings/Security Settings//Local Policies/Security Options



User Account Control: Allow UIAccess applications to prompt for elevation without using the secure desktop


User Account Control: Switch to the secure desktop when prompting for elevation


After this change you will be able to execute administrative software on remote computers.

[original article]

[update 2022.03.06]

Tips - Outlook 2016, Gmail Account, IMAP/POP3, two factor authentication (2FA). How to

During this time period I had necessity to configure Outlook 2016 in conjunction with gmail email account

Considering that gmail email account had 2FA configuration was possible generating a specific account password related Outlook 2016.

Here they article that I followed.

Hoping that these information will be useful for someone.